Senin, 08 Oktober 2012

TEACHING SPEAKING USING DEBATE ACTIVITY TO THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AT MAMBAUS SHOLIHIN BOARDING SCHOOL


CHAPTER 1

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
          Education is a process of human growth by which one gains greater under standing and control over one self and one’s world. It involves our minds, our bodies and our relations with the people and the world a round us. Whereas education takes many institutional forms, strictly speaking it is a process an activity characterized by continous development and change. The end product of the process of education in learning (Ryan and Cooper, 1994:139). Education is important because it equips us all that is needed to make our dreams come true. Education gives us knowledge of the world around us. It develops us a perspective of looking at life. It helps us build opinions and have points of view on things in life. There are many kinds of education. One of them is English language education.
          Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which is used by members of a social group to communicate with one another. It is a means to convey idea, thought, opinion, and feeling. This is the function of language as means of communication. In this globalization era English language is the international language. English is the first foreign language in Indonesia which is supposed to be very important for the purpose of studying and developing science, technology, cultural art, and developmental relation with other nations. Therefore, it is determined as the major at school in Indonesia, used as a means of students to achieve the purpose. That way, students can grow and develop to be the intellegent and skilled citizens.
          Realizing the national development in this field is needed the act of increasing and perfecting in running the national education, which is adapted to the development of science, technology, art, society, and the need of development. As the realization of our participation in this case, we must pay attention in school education, learning process, teaching method, and classroom management.
          Learning is to observe, to read to imitate, to try something them selves, to listen, to follow direction (Harold spears in sardiman, 1992:22). Learning process

needs plan, method or series of activities to achieve a particular educational goal (J.R Davidin).
Generally, student in mastering English face many problems. Teacher seems to dominate talking too much in learning process. Consequeantly, the students become passive, sitting quietly and listening rather than speaking. It seems that it is difficult to have opportunity to be active. So speaking is important.
Secondly, students often discouraged to speak English because they hesitate to talk and they are afraid of making mistake. This reason makes them reluctant to try to say in English words in their communication, even they are in speaking class, Then students often worried about pronunciation is correctly. According to the students that speak with appropriate chosen words, correct pronunciation and grammar when they are speaking. So, speaking is very important because when their speaking to someone, their pronunciation and grammar are right.
The other problems that often happen in the speaking class is often dominated by several activities of students. There are many activities to make the students interested and motivated in learning English. To overcome those problems, debate can be used as a technique to teach speaking to the students. Debate is way out, because of the following reasons. First, it motivates the students. Second, it is more congruent with learning and talking teaching practices, third it is more like the real.
Larsen – Freeman in Bambang (2006:154) state that student should be given opportunity to express their ideas and opinions.
Finally, that debate is a good activity to motivate and encourage the students to communicate in the language they are learning in the real situation. And writer takes observation in student of junior high school, because this activity is used in adolescence.
On this study the write tries to analyze debate activity implemented in teaching speaking process by the title: “Teaching Speaking Using Debate Activity to the Third Year Students of Junior High School at Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School”

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
          Based on the background, there are several problems that will be discussed. The Writer tries analyzed:
1.2.1          How is debate activity implemented in the teaching speaking to the third year students of junior high school?
1.2.2         What are students responses toward implementation of debate activity in teaching speaking at third year studnets of Junior High School at Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School?

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are based on the statement of the research question. The objective of the study would be:
1.3.1          To describe the implementation of debate activity to the students in teaching speaking ability
1.3.2          To investigate the responses of the students in the implementation of debate activity in teaching speaking ability.

1.4   SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
          Through this thesis, the writer hope the reader to understand several problems concerning the implementations of debate activity to the students in teaching speaking ability and investigate of responses of the students in the implementations of debate activity in teaching speaking ability.
         
For teacher, this method can be practiced in classroom when dealing with speaking ability for motivating conversation. And give teachers some references about interesting method of teaching English.
         
For student, they can learn in fun way that gives them motivation for speaking English fluently through debate activity. They can learn communication to ask and answer question, to respond of hesitation correctly and express correctly to spoken act of repetition.

1.5   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Based on the back ground are in order that the writer limits the problems only in teaching speaking ability by using debate activity at third year of Junior High School in Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School

1.6   DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
1.6.1   Speaking                  : is cognitive skill, is the idea that knowledge becomes increasingly automated through successive practice. Scoot (2005:79)
1.6.2   Debate                    :  is the activity which is used for understanding of the topic. It is done by two groups. Every group consist three or five students. It is “pro” group and “contra” group.  Debate caused a feeling of confident, can give motivation to convey learner’s opinion and respond the argument by using English language. It can build up their listening ability and speaking ability and increase their motivation in speaking. Bambang (2006:125)
1.6.3   Boarding School        : is the place of religion pupil for studying

1.7   ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
       In reporting the research, the writer divided this thesis in five chapters. Chapter one concern with introduction, which consist of background of  the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope limitation, definition of key terms, and the organization of the study.
          Chapter two states the review of related learning that content theories significant with the theme of the thesis.
          In research method, chapter three shows how the writer collects and arranges the data as support the analysis.
          Chapter four is analyzed problems that are in this thesis. The writer explains the data which has been done.
          Chapter five is conclusion from all of the problems that have been analyzed by the write.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

This study present a reviewed of literature, which covers a review of related theories. This is expected to serve important background information for the discussion of the findings of the analysis. Speaking, speaking ability, teaching speaking ability, language learner, method, language teacher, and organizing speaking activity.

2.1 Speaking
Speaking is considered as the productive and oral skill. As cited by Nunan (2003:48), speaking is the productive aural / oral skill. Scott (2005:iv) also states that speaking is a skill, and as such needs to be developed and practiced independently of the grammar curriculum. Speaking is interactive and requires the ability to co-operate in the management of speaking turns. It also typically takes place in real time, with little time for detailed planning.
Scoot (2005:79) states that speaking is cognitive skill, is the idea that knowledge becomes increasingly automated through successive practice.
To conclude Speaking is an activity that can express thoughts, ideas, and opinions orally to respond to the verbal and non verbal information.

2.1.1 Speaking Ability
According to Bailey (2005:42) conversation is one of the most basic and pervasive of human interaction conversations are unscripted. It involves two or more people. In conversation the topic can change and the individuals take turn. By definition, conversations are interactive: although one speaker is more talkative than another, in a conversation, two or more individuals communicate.
William (1981:1) states that the goal of foreign language teaching is communicative ability. It is mean that the teaching speaking ability must be increased in order to get the goal of the language learning.
Speaking ability is an important thing in the process of language learning. Speakers communicate through oral expression to gain much more information efficiently. Getting students to speak in class can sometimes be extremely easy. In a good class at an appropriate level will often participate freely and enthusiastically if we give them interesting activity and task.
The interesting activity will be implemented by writer in this thesis is debate activity. Debate is oral activities in learning process.

According to Bambang, (2006:125) Debate is the activity which is used for understanding of the topic. It is done by two groups. Every group consist three or five students. It is “pro” group and “contra” group.  Debate caused a feeling of confident, can give motivation to convey learner’s opinion and respond the argument by using English language. It can build up their listening ability and speaking ability and increase their motivation in speaking.

Motivation is power of attraction which motivate human to do something. According to Sardiman (1992:73) Motivasi sebagai sesuatu yang kompleks. Motivasi akan menyebabkan terjadinya sesuatu perubahan energi yang ada pada diri manusia, sehingga akan bergelayut dengan persoalan gejala kejiwaan, perasan dan juga emosi, untuk kemudian bertindak atau melakukan sesuatu. Semua itu didorong karena adanya tujuan, kebutuhan atau keinginan.
However, speaking ability is not easy, it has something to do with the mental factor of the students such as their mood, motivation and readiness. According to Sardiman (1992:84) Motivation is an essential condition of learning. The goal of the study will be optimal if teacher gives students motivation in language learning process, especially in a foreign language learning.
The goal of teaching speaking in today’s world is to improve students communicative skills because only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and culture rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.
Scoot (2005:90-91) divides the criteria for speaking tasks.
They are:
1)    Productivity, a speaking activity needs to be maximally language productive in order to provide the best conditions for autonomous language use.
2)   Purposefulness, often language productivity can be increased by making sure that the speaking activity has a clear outcome, especially one which requires learners to work together to achieve a common purpose. For example, the aim of having to reach a jointly agreed decision can give a discussion more point and encourage the participation of all members.
3)   Interactivity, activities should require learners to take into account the effect they are having on their audience. If not, they can hardly be said to be good preparation for real life language use. Even formal, monologic speaking task such as talks and presentations of interaction should be performed in situations where there is at least possibility of interaction, example: where there is an audience present, one which can demonstrate interest, understanding, and even ask questions or make comments at the end.
4)   Challenge, the task should stretch the learners so that they are forced to draw on their available communicative resources to achieve the outcome.
5)   Safety, while learners should be challenged, they also need to feel confident that, when meeting those challenges and attempting autonomous language use, they can do so without too much risk. The classroom should provide the right conditions for experimentation, including a supportive classroom dynamic and a non judgmental attitude to error on the part of the teacher. Also, learners need to be secure in the knowledge that the teacher like a driving instructor will always be there to take over if things get seriously out of hand.
6)   Authenticity, speaking task should have some relations to real life language use.

2.2 Teaching  Speaking  Ability
Student often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning. The skill of speaking is much more than the oral production of grammar or vocabulary items. Scoot (2005:116)
The main concern of teaching is communication with case in the target language without being occupied with error correction. The target language should be presented in such a way as to reveal its character as communication. Therefore, designing an English course, for students of science, should cover common topics in basic science and language item. The purpose of English teaching is to develop in the students’ awareness of the ways in which the language system is used to express scientific facts and concepts. Their idea suggests that the target language be used in an immersion program in order for the teaching of target language to be communicative.
For teaching of speaking teacher must understand the basic concepts of language teaching, the language learner, and the method to use for organizing classroom.
Richard and Rodgers in Bambang (2006:147), states that there are four basic assumptions about language are proposed:
1)    Language is a system for the expression of meaning.
2)   The primary function of language is interaction and communication
3)   The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses
4)   The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.
The four basic assumption of language suggest what aspects of the language should be taught, how language should be presented in language class and how language competence should be evaluated. The four assumptions mentioned above seem to derive from a single theory that emphasizes the use of language in daily life for practical reason communication.
Bambang (2006:147-148) said that language as means of communication and interaction. This assumption suggest language teacher to consider what language should be taught. The decision on what aspects of foreign language should be taught will lead us to decide what syllabus is appropriate for our language learners. This discussion also influences the sequence of materials that has been chosen to be the language syllabus.

2.2.1 Language Learner
1)  Adolescence
This section is related to teach speaking to adolescence. The classifications of age levels may be arguable.
According to Nunan (1995:92) Different people may have different classification of age levels and each category under a classification may have a different range of ages. Teenagers are classified as young adult whose ages range between twelve and eighteen or so: they are an age of transition: they are in between childhood and adult.
2)  The Characteristics of Adolescence
Bambang (2006:183) states that:
a)    Teenagers have more increasing capacities for abstraction as result of intellectual maturation.
b)   They are already good at handling abstract rules and concepts.
c)    Teenagers may feel uncomfortable and shy to follow instructions in language class.
Brown (2005:39) also states, Apart from the need for self esteem and the peer approval they may provoke from being descriptive, there are other factors too, such as the boredom they feel not to mention problems they bring into class from out side school. However, while it is true that adolescents can cause discipline problems, it is usually the case that they would be much happier if such problems did nit exist. Teenagers, if they are engaged, have a great capacity to learn, a great potential for creativity, and a passionate commitment to things which interest them.  We can ask teenagers to address learning issues directly. We are able to discuss abstract issue with them.
3)  The Roles of Language Learners
In term of oral communication, Johnson and Paulston (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001:128) suggest five possible learner roles that can make language learners more autonomous. Following are the roles of language learners, which are suggested by advocates of different methods:
a)    Learners plan their own learning program and thus ultimately assume responsibility for what they do in classroom.
b)   Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress.
c)    Learners are members of a group and learn by interacting with others.
d)   Learners tutor other learners.
e)   Learners learn from the teacher, from other students and from other teaching sources.
To conclude, there are the roles of language learners. Teacher can choose the method will be implemented for designing classroom through knowing this roles of language learners. 
 
2.2.2 Method
According to Brown (2005:78) a method is the practical realization of an approach. The originators of a method have arrived at decisions about types of activities, roles of teacher and learners, the kinds of material which will be helpful, and some model of syllabus organization. Method is include various procedures and techniques. When method have fixed procedures, informed by clearly articulated approach, they are easy to describe. The more all embracing they become, however, the more difficult it is to categories them as real methods in their own right.
There are some methods for teaching English language as a means of communication, one of them is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method. CLT is open for language teacher to develop their own activities based on the principle and the basic assumption of CLT.  
Bambang (2006:146) states the characteristics of CLT are:
1)    Meaning is paramount
2)   Dialogs, if used center around communicative functions are normally memorized
3)   Language learning is learning to communicative
4)   Effective communication is sought
5)   Drilling may occur, but peripherally
6)   Comprehensible pronunciation is sought
7)   Any device which helps the learners is accepted varying according to their age, interest, etc
8)   Attempts to communicative may be encourage from the very beginning
9)   Translations may be used where students need or benefit from it
10) Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desire
11)  Communicative competence is desire goal
12) Linguistics variation is a central concept in materials and methodology
13) Sequencing is determined by any consideration of content, function, or meaning, which maintains interest.
14) Teacher help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language
15) Students are expected to interact with other people, either in the flash, through pair and group work, or in their writings.
Language teachers or prospective language teachers have to ask themselves which principles can be implemented in English teaching in their condition and situation. They may develop some techniques deriving from the principle of CLT and try out the techniques or procedures suggested in the CLT, they will enrich their understanding of communicative teaching. Finally, they will find relatively effective techniques to teach a language as means of communication.
Different writers have suggested different set of procedures in the classroom that can support the goal of communicative teaching. The following principles are tips worth considering in communicative teaching suggested by Larsen – Freeman (1986:128):
1)    Whenever possible language as it is used in real context should de introduced.
2)   The target of language is vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study.
3)   Students should work with language.
4)   Games are important because they have in common with real communicative events.
5)   Student should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions.
6)   One of the teacher’s major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication.
7)   The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to utterances.
8)   Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communicative competence.
9)   The teacher acts as an advisor during communicative activities.
10) Student should be given opportunities to develop strategies for interpreting language as it is actually used by native speakers.

2.2.3 Language Teachers
Some methods may suggest the language teachers to perform the instructional function more than managerial one, while some other methods may encourage the language teachers to function as the manager of the classroom more.
Bambang (2006:18) argues that in some methods the role of language teacher is very dominant in instructional strategies.
As stated in Richards and Rodgers, (2001:28) some methods are totally dependent on the teacher as source of knowledge and direction. Other see than teacher role as catalyst, consultant, guide and model for learning. Understanding the roles of language teachers will be important for understanding the methods. Following are the most common roles of language teachers, which are implemented in different methods: 
1)    Language teacher functions as an organizer in the classroom. The teacher maintains discipline to the extent that an effective learning atmosphere is established. It can be done by involving the learners more actively in the classroom activities that demand inter-student communication and co-operative effort.
2)   Language teacher functions as counselor. The teacher role in to respond the learners’ problems non-judgmentally and help the learners to reach what they want to learn.
3)   Language teacher functions as motivator, the language teacher gives praise and encouragement for positive efforts by the learners. It can be done by giving positive feedback on returned assignments.
4)   Language teacher functions as an observer. The teacher shows the errors that the learner have produced and let learners work on the correction.
5)   Language teacher function as a model for producing correct expressions and judges whether the learners’ contributions to the learning process and their effort are relevant and correct.
6)   Language teacher function as a resource of knowledge and direction. The teacher establishes a position of dominance over the learners in selecting the materials to learn and also how to acquire them.
To conclude, the role relationship of language learner and teacher are many and varied from one method to another.

2.3 Organizing of Speaking Activity
2.3.1 Debate Activity
  For developing method of teaching in speaking ability by using CLT need an activity to support the method running active in learning process. The interesting activity will be implemented by writer in this thesis is debate activity. Debate is oral activities in learning process.
According to Bambang, (2006:125) Debate is the activity which is used for understanding of the topic. It is done by two groups. Every group consist three or five students. It is “pro” group and “contra” group.  Debate caused a feeling of confident, can give motivation to convey learner’s opinion and respond the argument by using English language. It can build up their listening ability and speaking ability and increase their motivation in speaking. First activity, they argue the topic according to their opinion. Second activity, they make a question about of the topic and answer by using argument from each of group. Third activity, they give conclusion about the topic from each group. This activity builds up their bravery to speak with English language.

2.3.2 Organizing Speaking Syllabus
For supporting the activity running active, teacher should understand the other ways of organizing the context of a speaking syllabus include the following:

1)    Spoken grammar
2)   Pronunciation features
3)   Communication strategies
4)   Conversational routines
5)   Conversational rules and structure
6)   Speech acts
7)   Registers
8)   Scripts
9)   Genres
10) Situations
11)  Cultural factors
















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this chapter will describe the methods used to conduct the study concerning research design, subject of the study, instrument, data collection technique, and data analyzing technique.

3.1 Research Design
As stated before, this study dealed with the use of debate activity to teach speaking to the third years student in Mambaus Sholihin Islamic Boarding School. This research was conducted to seek the answer of the research problems. The writer tried to answer the question of (1) How is debate activity implemented in teaching speaking to the third year students of Junior High School, and (2) What are students responses toward implementation of debate activity in teaching speaking at third year of Junior High School at Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School.
This study was using descriptive qualitative, according to Mc. Millan (1992:9) descriptive research focuses on understanding and meaning through verbal narrative and observative rather than though numbers. So, descriptive research was a research which purpose to describe about something that was part into analysis that was not statistic data. Therefore, the result of research is in the form of description and interpretation of some phenomena that exist during the research.
In this research that the title was using debate activity to teach speaking to the second year student in Mambaus Sholihin Islamic Boarding School. The purpose to give description and explanation about the activity and situation that are happening in the process of teaching and learning English. Dealing with this, the writer came to the class of third year class in order to describe the teaching and learning English. This study was design to identify and described the observer phenomenal in the form of word without any syntactical calculation.

3.2 Subject of the Study
The subject of the study were the third years students of Mambaus Sholihin Islamic Boarding School. The teacher taught them by using debate activity technique in teaching speaking. This research took the third students with two considerations. First, most of the student had difficulties or problems in speaking activities. Second, the third year student were afraid of speaking and had not confident. And the teacher needed a technique to over came the students difficulties in speaking activities.
It concerned with one class only which consist of 38 students, all of them were girls. They were third year students at Mambaus Sholihin Islamis Boarding School. It is located at Suci Manyar Gresik.

3.3 The Data and Sources of the Study
The sources of the data in this study were the teaching process of using debate activity. The data of this study were the information obtained from observation check list, field notes, questionnaire, and daily assessments. The data themselves were expected to bring information on the whole aspect of debate activity in speaking class. And the students’ responses in activity by using debate. The obtained data were presented in the descriptive manner. The descriptive manner was explained the result of the observation checklist, field notes and questionnaire, and assessments.

3.4 Research Instrument
In collect data, the writer used observation check list, field notes, questionnaire and daily assessment as the instruments of the research. They were as follows:

3.4.1 Observation Checklist
The observation checklist was used to show the process of teaching learning of speaking activities by using debate. It was conducted in the form of “yes” or “no” answer. The process of teaching speaking by using debate was done and seen to fill the observation checklist. The instrument comprised some indictors. Those indicators were the teacher’s activities in using debate activity to teach speaking, the student’s activity, the teaching technique and the material. Teacher’s activities of some indicators that were related to the teacher’s activities in class. Student’s activities consist of some indicators that were related to the student activities in the class. Then, teaching learning process consisted of some implementation of debate in teaching speaking. Material such as the topic was selected before and also included the teaching learning process such as the students: responses when the teacher used debate activity in speaking class.

3.4.2 Field Notes
In this study, the researcher watched, listened, paid attention, and wrote everything that could be used as the data during observing the implementation of debate activity in teaching speaking in the form of note taking. These activities were done to complete the data of observation checklist. The researcher’s note contained all the important thing’s she saw, heard, and some eddisional information which was not existed in the observation checklist.

3.4.3 Questionnaire
Questionnaire was given to the student for getting information which was related with the student’s motion, and motivation before and after implementation debate activity. Questionnaire was used to know the student responses. The student had to answer the question. The questionnaire was given at the end of teaching learning process. The writer said a close a question type. The questionnaire had some indicator.
The indicators measured in the questionnaire were provided as follows:
a)    The students’ opinion about English
b)   The students’ opinion about debate activity
c)    The students’ were asked for giving information the difficulties learning speaking by using debate activity
3.4.4 Daily assessments
In this study, the researcher also observed the students’ performance to know their progress in speaking activity. In assessing the students’ speaking ability, she adobted the criteria of daily speaking assessment in Mamba’us Sholihin Boarding School.  
There are some components to contribute the student speaking proficiency. They are: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehensibility. The elaboration is as follows.

Tabel 3.4.4 Rubric for oral Proficiency

Component
Score
Note
1
2
3
Pronunciation
5
Has new trace of foreign accent
4
Always intelligible, through one is conscious of definite accent
3
Pronunciation problem necessitate concentrated listening occasionally lead to misunderstanding
2
Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problems, must frequently be asked to repeat
1
Pronunciation problems to serve as to make speech virtually unintelligible









1
2
3
Grammar

5
Makes few noticeable errors of grammar or word order
4
Occasionally makes grammatical and / or word order errors which do not, however, obscure meaning
3
Makes frequent errors of grammar and word order which occasionally obscure meaning grammar and word order errors
2
Make comprehension difficult, must often rephrase sentences and or tries them self to basic pattern
1
Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible
Vocabulary
5
Use of vocabulary and idiom is virtually that of a native speaker
4
Sometimes uses inappropriate term and or must rephrase ideas because of lexical inadequacies
3
Frequently uses the wrong word conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary
2
Misuse of word and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult
1
Vocabulary limitation so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible

CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This chapter present the data had been collected during the research taken from observation checklist, field notes, questionnaire. The researcher tries to answer the questions, which are states in chapter I. They are: 1. How was debate acativity implemented to the third year students of Junior High School at Mambaus Sholihin Gresik? 2. How were the students’ response toward the implementation of debate activity in teaching speaking in third years of Junior High School of Mambaus Sholihin Gresik?

To answer the first question, the researcher used the observation checklist to describe the process of applying debate program in speaking class. To answer the second question, the researcher got the data from the data from students’ debate in speaking form. Furthermore, the result was analyzed based scoring criteria. The description of teacher’s difficulty during the teaching leaning process was analyzed from the researcher herself who was a teacher. The questionnaire was used to describe the students’ responds.

4.1 The Result of observations
The research finding would be described from the result of the observation checklist. The observation checklist was used to describe the teaching–learning of speaking by using debate activity in Mambaus Sholihin Islamic Boarding.  

4.1.1 The Result of the Teaching–Learning Process in the First Meeting in Observation Debate Activity
The first meeting was conducted on Wednesday, 18 July 2012. The English Subject was held at 11.30 pm to 13.00 pm. It was conducted at third year students in debate activity.

The activities included :
  1. Opening
a.  Salam and praying together
Ø  Assalamualaikun Warohmatullohi Wabarokatuh
Ø  Robbi Zidniy ‘Ilman War Zuqniy Fahman “The meaning Oh my God give me some knowledge and the mastery of understanding”
b.  Introduction
Ø  Teacher : Would you like me to introduce my self. My name is Siti Ni’amah you can call me Mom Ni’am. I am twenty three years old. I’m from Ngasinan village. I’m a student of Wijaya Putra University at Benowo - Surabaya. My hobby is reading. Thank you very much.
          Teacher chose one of students to introduce their selves in front of class. After giving the example of introduction. 
Ø  Teacher : Oke class…. May I ask you to introduce your self in front of  your friends? Nabila stand up please!
Ø  Student (Nabila) : Yes Mom…. My name is Nabila, I am from Lamongan. I am fifteen years old. My hobby is reading.
Ø  Teacher : Ok Thank you…. Nabila please choose one of your friends to introduce her self after you!
Ø  Student  (Nabila) :Reni
Ø  Student (Reni) : My name is Reni, I am from Tuban, I am fifteen years old, My hobby is singing.
Ø  Teacher : Thank you Reni……
          So, teacher told the purposes of this activity in Mambaus Sholihin boarding school, especially in the third class of junior high school that the purposes are to motivate the students’ ability of speaking English, and to observe the response of students’ speaking ability by using debate activity in this class. 


c.   Checking the attendance list
Ø  Ok …. Let me check the attendance list!
Ø  Teacher call name of students one by one

d.  Conversation teacher and students about English language
              Teacher made conversation about English. Students opinion about English, their motivations in speaking English and the difficulties to speak English.

e.  Game
          Teacher has a game for opening the activity and stimulating the lesson. The game is guessing the word. Teacher chose one of students to stand up in front of the class. Teacher gave the clue of word to the student for practicing the word, and other student guessed the word which has practiced by student.  After doing this game teacher shared the name card for all of students.

f.   Giving the name card for student
5-Point Star:            Teacher brought the unique name card. It is made from unique shape. And teacher gave name card for student in class. Teacher ordered them to protect this name card and use again for next meeting. The shapes of name card:
Down Ribbon:










  1. The main activity
Ø   Teaching and Learning Process
1.     Student learnt how to respond to a monologue discourse in the form of procedural text
Speaking   :
Practise the following dialogue!
Kesya        : Hello,Resty. Look at my new purse. I made it my self
Resty        : Hello, Kesya. Hey, that’s nice. Isn’t that your old purse?The one that we bought one your year ago?
Kesya        : Yup, that’s right
Resty        : How did you do that?
Kesya        : Sorry. What did you say?
Resty        : How did you do that, Kesya?
Kesya        : Oh. Well First I just added some colourful buttons. Then, four–five glittery beads. Finally, I gave my magic finishing touch, he… he… he…
Teacher asked students to practice this dialogue and explained the underlined sentence in the dialogue is asking the other speaker to repeat what was said.

2.    Student learnt how to express correctly to spoken act of repetition
Teacher gave the expression of asking repetition.
Informal :
a.    Sorry, I can’t hear you.
b.    I’m sorry. I didn’t catch what you said.
Formal (to older people or a stranger :
a.    Could you repeat again, please?
b.    Would you be louder, please?
c.    Sorry, what did you say?
              Then the teacher started the learning process by giving the student explanation about the topic that they would get that day. After knowing that, they would learn speaking by debate activity. 

Ø   The Implementation of Debate Activity
1.     Teacher told the activity that day is debate activity
2.    Teacher explain the roles of debate activity
a.    Teacher determined the topic
b.    Teacher divided the student in four groups. Each group consists of nine till ten students.
c.    Every group has name of group and divided again in two part of pro and contra 
d.    Teacher explained the first activity is students give argument of the topic according to their opinion. The second activity is they make a question about the topic and answer by using argument from each part of group. The third is they give conclusion about the topic from each group.
e.    Students can  begin the activity

3.    The topic
a.    Breakfast is the most important meal of the day

4.    Teacher divided student in four groups
a.    Teacher asked students to make a circle
b.     Students counted one, two, three and four. Teacher grouped the student according to their numerical count for making group. And every group consists of nine students. There was two groups consists of ten students.
c.     Student can determine pro and contra in every group they have.

After this activity teacher gave the simple explanation about the topic ”Breakfast is The Most Important Meal of the Day”. And teacher gave the vocabularies which were related with the topic. 
Vocabularies:
-          Factor                               - Occupy
-          Evoke, caused                              - Meal
-          Consequence                      - Diet
-          Ill                                     - Effect
-          Disease                                       - Busy                   
Student started the activity together.

  1. Closing
a.    Teacher shared the activity that day with English language.
b.    Teacher gave conclusion about the topic and announced the best group that day
c.    Teacher gave the title for next meeting to study at home
d.    Teacher and students prayed together

          The teacher gave the topic that would be practice for the next meeting. The student got the title of debate activity and they have to present and to give argument. They will perform debate activity in the next meeting. 

4.1.2       The Result of the Teaching–Learning Process in the Second Meeting in Observation Debate Activity
The first meeting was conducted on Thursday, 19 July 2012. The English Subject was held at 11.30 pm to 13.00 pm. It was conducted at third year students in debate activity.

The activities included :
1.  Opening
a.  Salam and praying together
Ø  Assalamualaikun Warohmatullohi Wabarokatuh
Ø  Robbi Zidniy ‘Ilman War Zuqniy Fahman “The meaning Oh my God give me some knowledge and the mastery of understanding”

b.  Teacher made conversation with students about the topic of last meeting.  Teacher made conversation about English. Students’ opinion about English, their motivations in speaking English and the difficulties to speak English.

c.   Checking the attendance list
Ø  Ok …. Let me check the attendance list!
Ø  Teacher called name of students one by one

d.  Game
          Teacher has a game for opening the activity and stimulating the lesson. The game is guessing the word. Teacher chose one of students to stand up in front of the class. Teacher gave the clue of word to the student for practicing the word, and other student guessed the word which has practiced by student.  After doing this game teacher shared the name card for all of students.

2.  The Main Activity
Ø  Teaching and Learning Process
1.     Student learnt how to respond to speech, such as hesitation correctly:
Speaking   :
Study the following dialogue carefully!
a.     Nina   : Lana, are you sure you’re going to your singing course this afternoon?
       Lana   : I couldn’t say right now. My uncle is sick, and my sister asked me to visit him at 5.00 pm.
b.    Surya : There’s some doubt in my mind that Britney Spears can really sing well without lip–sync.
       Kristin : I don’t think there can be any doubt about that. She can really sings beautifully without lip–sync.

c.     Father         : What do you think about the dancers, son?
       Soni   : I’m not all convinced that they had good preparation before… Dad

2.    Student learnt how to express correctly to respond to speech
Teacher gave the expression of responding to hesitation.
Informal :
a.    I’m a hundred percent certain…
b.    You can be sure about…
c.    I’ve no doubt about…
d.    …… absolutely positive / certain …
e.    … (surely) that’s obvious, (isn’t it?),(say with a smile, and only to friends, it can sound rude)
f.    It’s quite certain …
g.    I’m (quite) convinced / that…
Formal (to older people or a stranger):
a.    I don’t think there can be any doubt about that…
b.    I don’t think there can be any doubt…
c.    I’m fairly sure…
d.    There’s no / very little doubt in my mind…
e.    There can’t be any doubt…

              Then the student practiced the expression when teacher has given the learning process by giving the student explanation about the topic that they would get that day. After knowing that, they would learn speaking by debate activity. 

Ø  The Implementation of Debate Activity
1.   Teacher told the activity that day is debate activity
2. Teacher explained the roles of debate activity
a.      Teacher determined the topic
b.      Teacher divided the student in four groups. Each group consists of nine till ten students.
c.       Every group has name of group and divided again in two part of pro and contra
d.        Teacher explained the first activity is students give argument of the topic according to their opinion. The second activity is they make a question about the topic and answer by using argument from each part of group. The third is they give conclusion about the topic from each group.
e.       Students can begin the activity

3.    The topic
a.    The power of  female in organization

4.    Teacher divided student in four groups
a.Teacher asked students to make a circle
b.    Students counted one, two, three and four. Teacher grouped the student according to their numerical count for making group. And every group consists of nine students. There was two groups consists of ten students
c.    Student can determine pro and contra in every group they have.

5.  Teacher started the debate activity together and she observed the students activity  
6.       Teacher gave students the assignment to make a conclusion about the topic which has be discussed together. 
e.  Closing
a.    Student submitted the assignment to the teacher
b.    Teacher gave conclusion about the topic and announced the best group that day
c.    Teacher gave the topic of lesson for next meeting to study at home
d.    Teacher and students prayed together

          The teacher gave the topic that would be practice for the next meeting. The student got the title of debate activity and they have to present and give argument. They will perform debate activity in the next meeting. 

4.1.3 The Result of Students’ Speaking Ability after Implementation the Debate Program
From the result of observation to the students performed, there are also sample which represent five criteria of students’ debate activity in each meeting. The researcher did an observation on the students speaking by using debate activity. The measurements contains of scoring aspect elaborated from students proficiency including their pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehensibility.

The analysis of students’ activity of each meeting showed the criteria of scoring their speaking in the table below:
NO
NAME
First Meeting
Second Meeting
1
2
3
4
1.
Alvi Nur Gianti
64
68
2.
Amalia Safitri
56
64
3.
Amirotun Nabila
68
72
4.
Arina Alfa Rahmatika
88
88
1
2
3
4
5.
Avrok
64
64
6.
Dewi Khumairo’ Hasan
72
72
7.
Ely Luthfiyatul Hidayah
80
80
8.
Farichatin Nuril Aini Liulya
84
88
9.
Fitriyatul jannah
72
76
10.
Himayatu Shofwatir Rohmah
76
72
11.
Illa Fadzilah
60
68
12.
Intan Albetti Putri Aisyah
88
88
13.
Khuzaimah
64
68
14.
Maftuhatul Afidah
64
68
15.
Muflichatun Nafisah
76
80
16.
Murthosiyah Sukha
84
84
17.
Nabila Amalia
76
76
18.
Naila Nidain Nada
72
72
19.
Nailatur Rochmah
84
88
20.
Nasofatun Nadiyah
60
64
21.
Nur Afiqoh Suraya Niza’
72
80
22.
Nur A’iza Lizayanti
88
84
23.
Nur Farichah
68
68
24.
Nur Hidayatul Ainiyah
76
72
25.
Nur Laili Fitriyah
60
68
26.
Raviqoh Hanun Adifani Putri
64
72
27.
Reni Mar’atus Sa’idah
52
60
1
2
3
4
28.
Rizki Nur Afifah
84
88
29.
Robi’ah
88
88
30.
Sa’adatul Awwaliyah
68
72
31.
Shella Fetty Rosalina
56
60
32.
Shofi Luluk’atul Maghfiroh
80
80
33.
Silvi Arianti
80
76
34.
Siti Anifah
52
60
35.
Shofiatun Nasibeh
80
84
36.
Susi Alfafah
56
60
37.
Vina Nur Afiyah
80
80
38.
Zubaidah Alawiyah
68
72

The analysis of scoring
Meeting
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Fair
First Meeting
20%
8 Students
35%
13 Students
25%
9 Students
20%
8 Student
Second Meeting
25%
9 Students
40%
16 Students
25%
9 Students
10%
4 Students

Based on the observation of the students’ speaking ability by using debate activity, in first meeting of applying debate activity in teaching – learning process. There were 20% of 38 students who got excellent, 35% of 38 students were very good, 25% of 38 students were good, and 20% of 38 students were fair.

And in second meeting from the students’ activity profile above, it can be conclude that there were fluctuation of the students speaking in implementation of debate activity in teaching – learning speaking. There were 25% of 38 students got improvement in their speaking, and 40% of 38 students were very good,  25% of 38 students were good, and 10% of 38 students were decreased.

4.2   The  Students’ Response Toward Implementation of Debate Activity to the Third Year Students of Junior High School
          The reasearcher described the students’ response from the obsrvation checklist, field notes, and questionnaire. There were various response of implementation debate activityin teaching – learning speaking process
There were 36,84% of 38 students who were very like, 57, 89% of 38 students were like and 5,26% of 38 students were dislike.
Very like
Like
Dislike
36,84%
14 Students
57,89%
22 Students
5,26%
2 Students












CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Conclusion and suggestions are the last chapter of this study. These two things are very important since the readers or the next researcher can easily know the brief results of this study in the conclusion and have same revisions as suggested by the researcher.

5.1 Conclusion
Based on the result of the observation, responses of the students and discussions, the researcher concludes that one of alternative teaching activity of speaking in Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School is debate activity. That was based on the study “Teaching Speaking Using Debate Activity to the Third Year Students of Junior High School at Mambaus Sholihin Boarding School” was successfully done by the teacher and student, although there were some things should be revisied, More ever, the teacher always motivates the students to speak on the other hand. And the teacher gave correction and evaluation after doing the activity.

Debate activity has built good atmosphere for the students to speak. It makes the students brave and confident. Therefore, it is helpful for the students speaking to motivate themselves to speak in addition and improve the students speaking ability dealing with interaction with other in conversation and debate about the topic.

The students were interested in the implementation of debate activity in their speaking class. More than half of the student responded that debate activity was amazing to do, the topic of debate were interesting, there were any improvements in communication for them after the activity.

5.2 Suggestions
In order to make the activity successfully implemented in teaching and learning speaking, the researcher formulated some suggestions for the reader and the other researchers those are:
1.     The topic should be interesting and familiar with students’ daily life.
2.    Building the background knowledge the students by giving the interesting opening season that giving the sufficient materials
3.    Teacher should give the students motivation before beginning the lesson because it can influence the ability of students to speak.
4.    Teacher should give stimulation to the student before going to the next topic
5.    The implementation of debate activity in speaking class need more teachers to accompany in each group of debate.
6.     Controlling the allocated time in order to make the students do next activity, such as: Discussion, correction and evaluation
7.    Advising the students to be polite in giving opinion and respond statement.
8.    This activity can make the students bravely to speak English language by interaction and conversation.
9.    Giving the rewards for the best performances to give them more motivation to do better performance.
10. Reflection season should be done by teacher to evaluate and correct the students’ mistakes in every activity. 







BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arikunto, Suharsimi., 2010., Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.,       Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Endang, 2011., Perencanaan Pembelajaran., Surabaya : Adi Buana University. 
Ryan, Cooper., 1984., Those Who Can, Teach., Houghton : Mifflin Company.
Sardiman, AM., 1992.  Interaksi dan Motivasi Belajar Mengajar., Jakarta : CV Rajawali.
Setiyadi, Bambang., 2006., Teaching English as a Foreign Language., Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu.
Thormbury, Scoot., 2005., How to Teach Speaking., England : Long man.
Wardiman, Masduki B., & M. Sukirman., 3. 2008., English in Focus., Jakarta : Pusat Perbukuan Departement pendidikan nasional.











TEACHING SPEAKING USING DEBATE ACTIVITY TO THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AT MAMBAUS SHOLIHIN BOARDING SCHOOL




BY:
SITI NI’AMAH
NPM.28.181.042



ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF ART
WIJAYA PUTRA UNIVERSITY
SURABAYA
2012


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